New Technologies

A key research challenge of PhoNa is the development of new and innovative fabrication technologies for photonic nanomaterials as a prerequisite and driving force for the application-oriented Pilot Projects. The technology research within PhoNa is sectioned into Top-Down, Bottom-Up and Top-Up fabrication approaches:

Top-Down Approaches

A Top-Down fabrication scheme accounts for a method in which a nanostructure is created starting from a predefined arrangement, e.g. a stack of layers, that is sequentially processed. In PhoNa, such dedicated state-of-the-art technology facilities centered around electron- and ion-beam lithography as well as a multitude of nanopattern transfer techniques are utilized. These key technologies are the main enabler for a rapid prototyping of artificial photonic nanomaterials with unprecedented optical properties. A highlight selection of Phona contributions to this field is given below.


Optical metamaterials with quasicrystalline symmetry: Symmetry-induced optical isotropy

>> Phys. Rev. B 88, 201404 (2013).


Deep-Subwavelength Plasmonic Nanoresonators Exploiting Extreme Coupling

>> Nano Lett. 13, 3482-3486 (2013).


New Design Concepts for the Fabrication of Nanometric Gap Structures: Electrochemical Oxidation of OTS Mono- and Bilayer Structures

>> Small 8, 852-857 (2012).


Circular Dichroism from Chiral Nanomaterial Fabricated by On-Edge Lithography

>> Adv. Mater. 24, OP321-OP325 (2012).


Probe-Based Electro-Oxidative Lithography of OTS SAMs Deposited onto Transparent ITO Substrates

>> Adv. Func. Mater. 22, 4376-4382 (2012).


Plasmonic properties of aluminum nanorings generated by double patterning

>> Opt. Lett. 37, 157-159 (2012).


Microfabricated polymer-substrate for SERS

>> Microelectron. Eng. 98, 444-447 (2012).


Chiral metamaterial composed of three-dimensional plasmonic nanostructures

>> Nano Lett. 11, 4400-4404 (2011).


Asymetric transmission of light at optical metamaterials

>> Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 253902 (2010).

Bottom-Up Approaches

Bottom-Up approaches refer to schemes which start with entities at a smaller scale than the final structure, where regularly ordered lattices cannot be simply realized without additional efforts. For example, bottom-up approaches using self-organization of suitably tailored nanostructures have attracted increasing interest because of the rich assembling behavior and the collective properties that can potentially be engineered. A highlight selection of Phona contributions to this field is given below.


Tunable synthesis of poly(ethylene imine)-gold nanoparticle clusters

>> Chem. Comm. 50, 88-90 (2014).


A self-assembled three-dimensional cloak in the visible

>> Sci. Rep. 3, 2328 (2013).


Plasmon Coupling in Self-assembled Gold Nanoparticle Based Honeycomb Islands

>> J. Phys. Chem. C 117, 18634-18641, 2013.


High-harmonic and single attosecond pulse generation using plasmonic field enhancement in ordered arrays of gold nanoparticles with chirped laser pulses

>> Opt. Express 21, 2195-2205 (2013).


Exciting Bright and Dark Eigenmodes in Strongly Coupled Asymmetric Metallic Nanoparticle Arrays

>> J. Phys. Chem C. 116, 17746-17752 (2012).


The morphology of silver nanoparticles prepared by enzyme-induced reduction

>> Beilstein J. Nanotech. 3, 404-414 (2012).


Metal-containing Polymers via Electropolymerization

>> Adv. Mater. 24, 332-345 (2012).


Antireflective subwavelength structures on microlens arrays - comparison of various manufacturing techniques

>> Appl. Opt. 51, 8-14 (2012).


Ruthenium dye functionalized gold nanoparticles and their spectral responses

>> RSC Adv. 2, 4436-4471 (2012).


Self-Assembled Plasmonic Core-Shell Clusters with an Isotropic Magnetic Dipole Response in the Visible

>> ACS Nano 5, 6586-6592, (2011).


Functional soft materials from metallopolymers and metallosupramolecular polymers

>> Nature Mater. 10, 176-188 (2011).

Top-Up Approaches

Within PhoNa, Top-Up fabrication schemes refer to hybrid techniques, combining top-down and bottom-up approaches to explore entirely new technological fields. Examples include the usage of supramolecular systems and tailored block copolymers with anorganic nanoclusters, template-assisted self-organization routes, and additional micro- and mesoscopic structuring of homogeneous photonic nanomaterials. A highlight selection of Phona contributions to this field is given below.


Resonant metasurfaces at oblique incidence: interplay of order and disorder

>> Sci. Rep. 4, 4484 (2014).


Towards negative index self-assembled metamaterials

>> Phys. Rev. B 89, 075408 (2014).


Hierarchical, Guided Self-Assembly of Preselected Carbon Nanotubes for the Controlled Fabrication of CNT Structures by Electrooxidative Nanolithography

>> Langmuir 29, 7515-7520 (2013).


Self-Organized Anisotropic Liquid-Crystal Plasmonic Metamaterial

>> Adv. Mater. 25, 1999-2004 (2013).


Formation of Large 2D Arrays of Shape-Controlled Colloidal Nanoparticles at Variable Interparticle Distances

>> Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 30, 102-108 (2013).


Scattering properties of meta-atoms

>> Phys. Rev. B 83, 245119 (2011).


Fabrication of ring structures by anodization lithography on self-assembled OTS monolayers

>> J. Mater. Chem. 21, 8532-8536 (2011).